Niue Population: 1,190

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 History
Niue's remoteness, as well as cultural and linguistic differences between its Polynesian inhabitants and those of the adjacent Cook Islands, has caused it to be separately administered by New Zealand. The population of the island continues to drop (from a peak of 5,200 in 1966 to an estimated 1,190 in 2014) with substantial emigration to New Zealand 2,400 km to the southwest.

 Geography
One of world's largest coral islands
Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Tonga
Geographic coordinates: 19 02 S, 169 52 W
Area: total: 260 sq km
land: 260 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 64 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds
Terrain: steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: fish, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 19.1% arable land 3.8%; permanent crops 11.5%; permanent pasture 3.8% forest: 71.2%
other: 9.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: typhoons
Current Environment Issues: increasing attention to conservationist practices to counter loss of soil fertility from traditional slash and burn agriculture
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
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 People
Nationality: noun: Niuean(s)
adjective: Niuean
Ethnic groups: Niuen 66.5%, part-Niuen 13.4%, non-Niuen 20.1% (includes 12% European and Asian and 8% Pacific Islanders) (2011 est.)
Languages: Niuean (official) 46% (a Polynesian language closely related to Tongan and Samoan), Niuean and English 32%, English (official) 11%, Niuean and others 5%, other 6% (2011 est.)
Religions: Ekalesia Niue (Congregational Christian Church of Niue - a Protestant church founded by missionaries from the London Missionary Society) 67%, other Protestant 3% (includes Seventh Day Adventist 1%, Presbyterian 1%, and Methodist 1%), Mormon 10%, Roman Catholic 10%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%, other 6%, none 2% (2011 est.)
Population: 1,190 (July 2014 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.03% (2014 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 42.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.94% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: ALOFI (capital) 1,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: NA
Infant mortality rate: total: NA male: NA
female: NA
Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA male: NA
female: NA
Total fertility rate: NA
Health expenditures: 7.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 3 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 98.4% of population
rural: 98.6% of population
total: 98.5% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1.6% of population
rural: 1.4% of population
total: 1.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 42.5% (2014)
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy:
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Niue note: pronunciation falls between nyu-way and new-way, but not like new-wee
former: Savage Island
etymology: the origin of the name is obscure; in Niuean, the word supposedly translates as "behold the coconut"
Government type: self-governing parliamentary democracy (Fouo Ekepule) in free association with New Zealand
Capital: name: Alofi
geographic coordinates: 19 01 S, 169 55 W
time difference: UTC-11 (6 hours behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: none; note - there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 14 villages at the second order
Independence: 19 October 1974 (Niue became a self-governing parliamentary government in free association with New Zealand)
National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840)
Constitution: several previous (New Zealand colonial statutes); latest 19 October 1974 (Niue Constitution Act 1974); amended 1992, 2007 (2016)
Legal system: English common law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General of New Zealand Lt. Gen. Sir Jerry MATEPARAE (since 31 August 2011); the UK and New Zealand are represented by New Zealand High Commissioner Ross ARDEN (since February 2014)

head of government: Premier Toke TALAGI (since 18 June 2008)

cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the premier elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; premier indirectly elected by the Legislative Assembly for a 3-year term; election last held on 24 April 2014 (next to be held in 2017)

election results: Toke TALAGI reelected premier; Legislative Assembly vote - Toke TALAGI (independent) 12, Stanley KALAUNI 8
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Assembly or Fono Ekepule (20 seats; 14 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 6 directly elected from the National Register or "common roll" by majority vote; members serve 3-year terms)

elections: last held on 12 April 2014 (next to be held in 2017)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - 20 independents
Judicial branch: highest resident court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of the chief justice and up to 3 judges); note - the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) is the final appeal court beyond the Niue Court of Appeal judge selection and term of office: Niue chief justice appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the Cabinet and tendered by the premier; other judges appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the Cabinet and tendered by the chief justice and the minister of justice; judges serve until age 68

subordinate courts: High Court note: Niue is a participant in the Pacific Judicial Development Program, which is designed to build governance and the rule of law in 15 Pacific island countries
Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Independents or AI Niue People's Action Party or NPP [Young VIVIAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: ACP, AOSIS, FAO, IFAD, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
National symbol(s): yellow, five-pointed star; national color: yellow
National anthem: name: "Ko e Iki he Lagi" (The Lord in Heaven)
lyrics/music: unknown/unknown, prepared by Sioeli FUSIKATA

note: adopted 1974
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)
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 Economy
The economy suffers from the typical Pacific island problems of geographic isolation, few resources, and a small population. The agricultural sector consists mainly of subsistence gardening, although some cash crops are grown for export. Industry consists primarily of small factories for processing passion fruit, lime oil, honey, and coconut cream. The sale of postage stamps to foreign collectors is an important source of revenue. Government expenditures regularly exceed revenues, and the shortfall is made up by critically needed grants from New Zealand that are used to pay wages to public employees. Economic aid allocation from New Zealand in FY13/14 was US$10.1 million. Niue has cut government expenditures by reducing the public service by almost half. The island in recent years has suffered a serious loss of population because of emigration to New Zealand. Efforts to increase GDP include the promotion of tourism and financial services, although the International Banking Repeal Act of 2002 resulted in the termination of all offshore banking licenses. The economy suffers from the typical Pacific island problems of geographic isolation, few resources, and a small population. The agricultural sector consists mainly of subsistence gardening, although some cash crops are grown for export. Industry consists primarily of small factories for processing passion fruit, lime oil, honey, and coconut cream. The sale of postage stamps to foreign collectors is an important source of revenue. Government expenditures regularly exceed revenues, and the shortfall is made up by critically needed grants from New Zealand that are used to pay wages to public employees. Economic aid allocation from New Zealand in FY13/14 was US$10.1 million. Niue has cut government expenditures by reducing the public service by almost half. The island in recent years has suffered a serious loss of population because of emigration to New Zealand. Efforts to increase GDP include the promotion of tourism and financial services, although the International Banking Repeal Act of 2002 resulted in the termination of all offshore banking licenses.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $10.01 million (2003 est.) GDP (purchasing power parity): $10.01 million (2003 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $10.01 million (2003) GDP (official exchange rate): $10.01 million (2003)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.2% (2003 est.) 6.2% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,800 (2003 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,800 (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products: coconuts, passion fruit, honey, limes, taro, yams, cassava (manioc, tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, poultry, beef cattle coconuts, passion fruit, honey, limes, taro, yams, cassava (manioc, tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, poultry, beef cattle
Industries: handicrafts, food processing handicrafts, food processing
Industrial production growth rate: NA% NA%
Labor force: 663 (2001) 663 (2001)
Labor force - by occupation: note: most work on family plantations; paid work exists only in government service, small industry, and the Niue Development Board note: most work on family plantations; paid work exists only in government service, small industry, and the Niue Development Board
Unemployment rate: 12% (2001) 12% (2001)
Population below poverty line: NA% NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA% lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $15.07 million
expenditures: $16.33 million (FY04/05) revenues: $15.07 million expenditures: $16.33 million (FY04/05)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (2005) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (2005)
Exports: $201,400 (2004 est.) $201,400 (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities: canned coconut cream, copra, honey, vanilla, passion fruit products, pawpaws, root crops, limes, footballs, stamps, handicrafts canned coconut cream, copra, honey, vanilla, passion fruit products, pawpaws, root crops, limes, footballs, stamps, handicrafts
Exports - partners: Germany 25%, Belgium 11%, United Kingdom 8%, France 8%, Italy 4%, United States 4% (2014) Germany 25%, Belgium 11%, United Kingdom 8%, France 8%, Italy 4%, United States 4% (2014)
Imports: $9.038 million (2004 est.) $9.038 million (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities: food, live animals, manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, lubricants, chemicals, drugs food, live animals, manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, lubricants, chemicals, drugs
Imports - partners: Germany 16%, Belgium 10%, China 9%, United States 7%, United Kingdom 7%, Russia 5%, France 4%, Norway 4% (2014) Germany 16%, Belgium 10%, China 9%, United States 7%, United Kingdom 7%, Russia 5%, France 4%, Norway 4% (2014)
Debt - external: $418,000 (2002 est.) $418,000 (2002 est.)
Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZD) per US dollar - 1.441 (2016 est.) 1.4279 (2015 est.) 1.2039 (2014 est.) 1.2039 (2013 est.) 1.23 (2012 est.) New Zealand dollars (NZD) per US dollar - 1.441 (2016 est.) 1.4279 (2015 est.) 1.2039 (2014 est.) 1.2039 (2013 est.) 1.23 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 4 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 3.72 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 1,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 60 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 64.25 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 3,520 Mt (2012 est.)
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 Communications
Telephone system:

domestic: single-line (fixed line) telephone system connects all villages (and virtually all households) on island

international: country code - 683 (2015)
Broadcast media: 1 government-owned TV station with many of the programs supplied by Television New Zealand; 1 government-owned radio station broadcasting in AM and FM (2009)
Internet country code: .nu
Internet users: total: 1,090 percent of population: 91.6% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 1 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2012)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Roadways: total 120 km
paved: 120 km (2011)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Alofi
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of New Zealand
Military branches: no regular indigenous military forces; Police Force
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook

 

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